Abolition of monarchy
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The abolition of monarchy involves the ending of monarchical elements in government, usually hereditary.
Abolition has been carried out in various ways, including via abdication leading to the extinction of the monarchy, legislative reform, revolution, coup d'état, and decolonisation. Abolition became more frequent in the 20th century, with the number of monarchies in Europe falling from 22 to 12 between 1914 and 2015, and the number of republics rising from 4 to 34. Decolonisation and independence have resulted in an abolition of monarchies in a number of former colonies such as those created by the United Kingdom.
Motivations for abolition include egalitarianism and anti-class views, opposition to undemocratic and hereditary institutions, perception of monarchy as anachronistic or outdated, and opposition to a particular monarch or dynasty. In many colonies and former colonies, abolishing the influence of the monarchy of a colonising state is considered part of decolonisation. In many Commonwealth realms, the monarchy may be viewed as a foreign institution running counter to the national identity or national sovereignty.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, restorations of monarchies have been comparatively rare. Examples are the monarchy of Spain, which since 1947 had been a regency with a vacant throne but was restored in 1975; the reinstatement in 1991 of the Emir of Kuwait following abolition in 1990 and the Gulf War; and a 1993 transition of Cambodia from a Marxist-Leninist republic to an elective monarchy.
17th-century reawakening of classical western anti-monarchy tradition
Under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, in 1649, King Charles I was tried for high treason, convicted and executed. This marked the conclusion of the English Civil War which resulted in the Parliament of England overthrowing the English monarchy, and initiating a period of an English republic (known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms). After eleven years, in 1660, a limited monarchy was restored but moderated by an independent Parliament.
18th-century dawn of republican revolutions
Organized anti-monarchism in what is now the United States developed out of a gradual revolution that began in 1765, as colonists resisted a stamp tax through boycott and condemnation of tax officials. While they were subject to the authority of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (as the monarchy was a limited monarchy since 1660), the North American citizens enjoyed a level of autonomy that increasingly clashed with the Parliament that did not provide seats for parliamentary representatives. With the Declaration of Independence in 1776, anti-monarchical propaganda resulted in violent protests that systematically removed symbols of monarchy. For instance, an equestrian statue of George III in New York City was toppled. Parliamentary loyalists were particularly affected by partisan attacks, with tens of thousands leaving for Canada. Property that remained was confiscated by each of thirteen newly created States through newly passed laws. Artifacts from the colonial period depicting the British monarchy are seldom found in the United States. However, not all sentiment equated to anti-monarchism. A normality of a monarchy at the head of a polity remained, that some Americans saw a presidency in monarchical terms, a Caesar of the republic, was an early debate in the new republic.
One of the most significant abolitions of monarchy in history – along with the Dutch Republic of 1581–1795 – involved the French monarchy in 1792 in the French Revolution. The French monarchy was later restored several times with differing levels of authority. Napoleon, initially a hero of the Republican revolution, crowned himself emperor in 1804, only to be replaced by the Bourbon Restoration in 1815, which in turn was replaced by the more liberal July Monarchy in 1830. The 1848 Revolution was a clearer anti-monarchic uprising that replaced the succession of royal leaders with the short-lived Second French Republic. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte established the Second French Empire (1852–1870), retaining republican aspects while placing himself in the center of the state until the losses in the Franco-Prussian War led to his fall, resulting in the French Third Republic and the definitive end of the monarchy in France.
19th-century expansion and then collapse of colonial monarchies
Mexico The First Mexican Empire existed from the September 1821 Declaration of Independence until the emperor's abdication in March 1823. The Provisional Government took power and the First Mexican Republic was proclaimed in 1824. Due to French intervention under Napoleon III, the Second Mexican Empire lasted from 1864 to 1867, when it collapsed and its Emperor, Maximilian I of Mexico, was executed.
Brazil In Brazil, the monarchy was abolished in 1889, when Emperor Pedro II was overthrown by a republican military coup (the status of the republic was confirmed by a plebiscite in 1993 that resulted in 86% of the votes to the republican government).
Burma The monarchy of Burma was abolished in 1885 when the last king, Thibaw Min, lost his throne and the country was annexed by Britain.
Spain In Spain monarchy was abolished from 1873 to 1874 by the First Spanish Republic, but then restored until 1931.
Tahiti The monarchy of Tahiti came to an end in 1880 when France made it a colony and overthrew King Pōmare V.
20th-century global end of monarchies
China The monarchy of China ceased to exist in 1912 when the Xinhai Revolution led by Sun Yat-sen succeeded in overthrowing the Xuantong Emperor; this marked the end of the Qing dynasty and the start of the Republic of China. In 1915, Yuan Shikai proclaimed the Empire of China with himself as the emperor; the regime failed to gain legitimacy and collapsed three months later. In 1917, the Qing loyalist Zhang Xun sought to revive the Qing dynasty and briefly reinstalled the Xuantong Emperor to the Chinese throne; this attempt is known as the "Manchu Restoration" in historiography.
During the Xinhai Revolution, Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty of China in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911. The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was subsequently proclaimed, although the Republic of China laid claims to Outer Mongolia and was widely recognized by the international community as having sovereignty over it. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was established, bringing an end to the monarchy in Mongolia.
Greece Throughout Greece's eventful modern history, the monarchy was toppled and restored several times between and after the two World Wars. The last king, Constantine II, was forced into exile after a coup in 1967 and the republic was proclaimed in 1973 by the then-ruling military dictatorship. The final abolition of the monarchy was confirmed overwhelmingly after constitutional legality was restored, by free referendum in 1974.
Italy, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia World War II saw another spate of abolition. In 1939 Italy invaded Albania and removed the reigning self-proclaimed King Zog and instated their own King Victor Emmanuel III as its new monarch. Italy, along with the eastern European monarchies of Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania joined with Germany in World War II against the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Western allies and the Soviet Union. As the Axis powers came to a defeat in the war, communist partisans in occupied Yugoslavia and occupied Albania seized power and ended the monarchies. Communists in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania removed their monarchies with strong backing by the Soviet Union, which had many troops and supporters placed there during the course of the war. Through this, Peter II of Yugoslavia, Simeon II of Bulgaria and Michael I of Romania all lost their thrones. King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy had switched sides during the war in favor of the western allies, but a referendum in 1946 ended the short reign of his son King Umberto II and the Italian monarchy ceased to exist.
In a 1999 referendum, the voters of Australia rejected a proposal to replace the constitutional monarchy with a republic with a president appointed by Parliament. The proposal was rejected in all states, with only the Australian Capital Territory voting in favor. Though polling consistently showed a majority in favour of a republic, the result of the referendum was attributed to a split among republicans between those who supported the presented model and those who supported a directly elected president.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Montenegro The defeated German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires saw the abolition of their monarchies in the close aftermath of the war, ending the reigns of Wilhelm II, Charles I and Mehmed VI respectively. The monarchs of the constituent states within the German Empire, most importantly Ludwig III of Bavaria, Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and Wilhelm II of Württemberg, soon abdicated. During the war, monarchies were planned for Poland (Kingdom of Poland), the Grand Duchy of Finland (to have a Finnish King), and Lithuania (Mindaugas II of Lithuania), with a protectorate-like dependency of Germany. Both intended kings renounced their thrones after Germany's defeat in November 1918. King Nicholas I of Montenegro lost his throne when the country became a part of Yugoslavia in 1918.
Indochina In 1945, during the August Revolution, Bảo Đại abdicated under the pressure of the Việt Minh led by Ho Chi Minh. This marked the end of the Nguyễn dynasty and the Vietnamese monarchy. From 1949 to 1955, Bảo Đại served as the Quốc Trưởng (lit. "Chief of State") of the State of Vietnam and did not receive the title of Hoàng Đế (lit. "Emperor").
Political upheaval and Communist insurrection put an end to the monarchies of Indochina after World War II: a short-lived attempt to leave a monarchical form of government in post-colonial South Vietnam came to naught in a fraudulent 1955 referendum, a military coup overthrew the kingless monarchy in Cambodia in 1970 and a Communist takeover ended the monarchy in Laos in 1975. Cambodia's monarchy later saw an unexpected rebirth under an internationally mediated peace settlement with a former king Norodom Sihanouk being restored as a figurehead in 1993.
Portugal The monarchy of Portugal was also overthrown in 1910 (5 October), two years after the assassination of King Carlos I, ending the reign of Manuel II, who died in exile in England (1932), without issue.
Russia World War I led to perhaps the greatest spate of abolitions of monarchies in history. The conditions inside Russia and the poor performance in the war gave rise to a revolution which toppled the entire institution of the monarchy, followed by a second revolution against that government in October of the same year that executed Tsar (Imperator (Императоръ)) Nicholas II and implemented a Marxist-Leninist government.
Spain In Spain, the monarchy was again abolished in 1931 by the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939). In 1947, General Franco declared Spain a realm, and appointed Juan Carlos of Bourbon his successor in 1969. The Prince of Spain became king at Franco's death in 1975, and constitutional monarchy was restored in 1978 under him.
Tunisia The monarchy of Tunisia ended in 1957 when Muhammad VIII al-Amin lost his throne.
Yemen The monarchy of Yemen was abolished in 1962 when King Muhammad al-Badr was overthrown in a coup, although he continued to resist his opponents until 1970.
Imperialism expansion and decolonisation
Commonwealth of Nations Many monarchies were abolished in the middle of the 20th century or later as part of the process of decolonization. The monarchies of India, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, Guyana, and Malawi were abolished shortly after they became independent of the United Kingdom, while remaining within the Commonwealth. The monarchy of Ireland was not abolished following the Ireland war of independence in the 1920s. The monarchy was abolished by the Republic of Ireland Act of 1948, which came into force in 1949. Some Commonwealth realms waited a little longer before abolishing their monarchies: Pakistan became a republic in 1956 and South Africa in 1961. Gambia abolished its monarchy in 1970, while Sierra Leone became a republic in 1971, as did Sri Lanka in 1972, Malta in 1974, Trinidad and Tobago in 1976, and Fiji in 1987. The latest country to become a republic within the Commonwealth was Mauritius in 1992.
Japan A unique result of World War II was that the Emperor Hirohito of Japan became a figurehead instead of losing the throne altogether. The Japanese Emperor had held a debated but important role in Japan's warfare against an alliance of nations. The reduction in stature from a divine being to a figurehead was at the direction of the United States.
Korea In 1910 the last emperor of Korea, Sunjong, lost his throne when the country was annexed by Japan. However, the Korean royal family was mediatized as a puppet family within the Japanese imperial family. Many of the Korean royals were forcibly re-educated in Japan and forced to marry Japanese royalty and aristocrats to meld the ruling families of the two empires. With the abolition of the Japanese aristocracy and cadet branches of the imperial family, the Korean royals officially lost their remaining status.
South Asia The independence of the Indian subcontinent from direct British rule in 1947 posed a unique problem. From 1858, when the British government had assumed direct rule over the subcontinent, it had been governed as a quasi-federation, with most of the subcontinent (known as British India), under the direct rule of the British sovereign. The remainder of the subcontinent, however, was under a form of indirect rule through its division and subdivision into over 500 subnational monarchies, known as princely states; each was ruled by a prince in a subsidiary alliance with the British government. The princely states ranged from powerful and largely independent principalities such as Hyderabad or Mysore, with a high level of autonomy, to tiny fiefdoms a few dozen acres (in the low tens of hectares) in size. The resulting imperial structure was broadly similar to that of the German Empire before the First World War.
In 1947, it was agreed that the Indian subcontinent would be partitioned into the independent British dominions of India and Pakistan, with the princely states acceding to one nation or the other. The accession process proceeded smoothly, with the notable exception of four of the most influential principalities. The Muslim ruler of the Hindu-majority state of Junagadh ruler acceded to Pakistan, but his decision was overruled by the Indian government, while Hyderabad chose to be independent, but was forcibly annexed to India in 1948. The Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, among the largest and most powerful of the principalities, but with a Muslim-majority population, initially held off on a decision. In the autumn of 1947, an invading force from Pakistan frightened the ruler into acceding to India. The ruler of Kalat, in Baluchistan, declared his independence in 1947, after which the state was forcibly merged with Pakistan, resulting in an insurgency persisting to this day. With the promulgation of the Indian constitution in 1950, India abolished its monarchy under the British crown and became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, followed by Pakistan in 1956; as a result of both developments, the majority of the princes formally lost their sovereign rights. A few remaining principalities in Pakistan retained their autonomy until 1969 when they finally acceded to Pakistan. The Indian government formally derecognized its princely families in 1971, followed by Pakistan in 1972.
In a referendum in Brazil in 1993, voters rejected an attempt to restore the country's monarchy. Unsuccessful efforts to restore the monarchies of some of the Balkan states in the former Eastern Bloc continue. Former King Michael of Romania and Prince Alexander of Serbia have been allowed to return, gained some popularity, played largely apolitical public roles, but never came close to being restored to their ancestral thrones. However, in Bulgaria, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who was deposed from the Bulgarian throne in 1946, was elected and recently served as the Prime Minister of his country from 2001 to 2005. The only formerly socialist country to have held a referendum on the monarchy was Albania where the claimant to his father's throne, the self-styled Leka I, lost by a 2/3 majority, though it was later revealed upon Leka’s death in 2011 by the Albanian government that the referendum had been rigged in favour of the republic.
New monarchies in the 20th century
Summary table of the 20th century
|Dendi||Askia Malla||1901||Ousted by the French, the country became a part of French West Africa.|
|Ashanti||Prempeh I||1902||Ousted by the British, the country became a part of Gold Coast (British colony).|
|Oyo||Adeyemi I Alowolodu||1905||Last monarch died, the country became a part of British Southern Nigeria Protectorate.|
|Mwali||1909||The country was incorporated into French Third Republic.|
|Portugal||Manuel II||1910||Republican Coup d'État.|
|Korea||Sunjong||Native monarchy abolished; replaced by rule by Japan, a monarchy, through 1945.|
|Angoche||Ousted by the Portuguese, the country was incorporated into Portugal.|
|Nri||Eze Nri Òbalíke||1911||Ousted by the British, the country became a part of Southern Nigeria Protectorate.|
|Kasanje||The country was incorporated into Portuguese West Africa.|
|China||Xuantong||1912||Xinhai Revolution – Emperor ousted by warlords and republicans.|
|Ndzuwani||Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar||The country was incorporated into French Third Republic.|
|Kongo||Manuel III||1914||Position abolished by Portuguese after an unsuccessful revolt.|
|Sultanate of Sulu||Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II||1915||Split into American Insular Government over the Philippine islands, British North Borneo and the Dutch East Indies.|
|Darfur||Ali Dinar||1916||Darfur formally re-incorporated into Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.|
|China||Hongxian||Monarchy dropped, shortly after the outbreak of the National Protection War.|
|Russia||Nicholas II||1917||Russian Revolution of 1917.|
|Finland||Finnish Declaration of Independence.|
|Montenegro||Nicholas I||1918||Referendum deposed King and united Montenegro with Serbia.|
|Germany||William II||All on account of German defeat in World War I and the following German Revolution.|
|Saxony||Frederick Augustus III|
|Mecklenburg-Schwerin||Frederick Francis IV|
|Mecklenburg-Strelitz||Adolphus Frederick VI|
|Oldenburg||Frederick Augustus II|
|Saxe-Coburg and Gotha||Charles Edward|
|Reuss Elder Line||Heinrich XXIV|
|Reuss Younger Line||Heinrich XXVII|
|Austria||Charles I||Charles I "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate. Monarchy officially abolished by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, on 10 September 1919.|
|Finland||Frederick Charles I||Monarchy never in effect.|
|Poland||Ruled by Regency Council|
|Hungary||Charles IV||Monarchy restored in 1920, although the throne remained vacant with a Regent.|
|Serbia||Peter I||Country transformed to Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.|
|Ukraine||Pavlo Skoropadskyi||Removed from power, following an uprising led by Symon Petliura and the withdrawal of German forces from Kiev.|
|Bukhara (Uzbekistan)||Mohammed Alim Khan||1920||Monarchy deposed by an invasion by the Red Army (Bukhara operation).|
|Khiva (Uzbekistan)||Abdallah Khan||Monarchy deposed by a communist uprising aided by the Red Army (Khivan Revolution).|
|Syria||Faisal I||Monarchy deposed, following the Siege of Damascus.|
|Ottoman Empire||Mehmed VI||1922||Sultanate abolished in 1922.|
|Wituland||Fumo `Umar ibn Ahmad||1923||Sultanate abolished by British, the country was incorporated into Kenya Colony.|
|Greece||George II||1924||Restored 1935 and later abolished again in 1973 (see below).|
|Mongolia||Bogd Khan||Communist People's Republic proclaimed after Khan's death.|
|Albania||William I||1925||Monarchy restored in 1928 (Albanian Kingdom).|
|Mohammerah||Khaz'al al-Ka'bi||1925||Sheikhdom abolished by Persia|
|Orungu||Rogombé-Nwèntchandi||1927||Position abolished by French.|
|Spain||Alfonso XIII||1931||Later restored (see below).|
|Jimma||Abba Jofir||1932||Ousted by Ethiopians, Jimma incorporated into Ethiopia.|
|Albania||Zog I||1939||Throne usurped by Victor Emmanuel III, after Italian invasion.|
|Albania||Victor Emmanuel III||1943||Relinquished throne after Italian armistice.|
|Croatia||Tomislav II||Abdicated after withdrawal of Italian support.|
|Iceland||Christian X||1944||Union with Denmark terminated.|
|Montenegro||Ruled by Governor||Monarchy abolished after takeover by Yugoslav Partisans|
|Yugoslavia||Peter II||1945||Communist reconstruction.|
|Manchukuo||Kangde||Monarchy abolished after the Surrender of Japan. Territories returned to the Republic of China.|
|Vietnam||Bảo Đại||Monarchy abolished after the Surrender of Japan.|
|Hungary||Miklós Horthy as Regent||1946||Decision of the parliament without a referendum.|
|Italy||Umberto II||Referendum; official result: 54.3% in favour of republic.|
|Bulgaria||Simeon II||Referendum held to decide whether the monarchy would be retained; 95% in favour of republic. Simeon later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria 2001-2005.|
|Sarawak||Charles Vyner Brooke||White Rajahs hand over power to British crown.|
|Romania||Michael I||1947||Forced out by the communists.|
|Ireland||George VI||1949||Abolished the last "Monarchy of Ireland", the King of the United Kingdom.|
|India||George VI||1950||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
|Jaisalmer||Giridhar Singh Bhati||1950||The Kingdom of Jaisalmer merged with the Republic of India in 1950.|
|Mysore||Jayachamaraja Wodeyar||1950||The Kingdom of Mysore merged with the Republic of India in 1950|
|Tibet||Tenzin Gyatso||1951||Incorporated into the People's Republic of China.|
|Egypt||Fuad II||1953||Republic proclaimed one year after the 1952 Coup d'état.|
|Vietnam||Bảo Đại||1954||Vietnam partitioned through the Geneva Accords.|
|Vietnam||Bảo Đại||1955||Referendum in South Vietnam.|
|Pakistan||Elizabeth II||1956||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
|Tunisia||Muhammad VIII al-Amin||1957||Decision of the parliament.|
|Iraq||Faisal II||1958||coup d'état|
|Ghana||Elizabeth II||1960||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy, following a referendum; official result: 88% in favour of republic.|
|South Africa||1961||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy pursuant to 1960 referendum; official result: 53% in favor of republic.|
|Rwanda||Kigeli V||coup d'état, followed by referendum; official result: 80% in favor of abolishing monarchy.|
|Tanganyika||Elizabeth II||1962||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
|Yemen||Muhammad al-Badr||coup d'état|
|Nigeria||Elizabeth II||1963||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
|Zanzibar||Jamshid bin Abdullah||Zanzibar Revolution|
|Burundi||Ntare V||1966||coup d'état|
|Malawi||Elizabeth II||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
|Fadhli Sultanate||Nasser bin Abdullah bin Hussein bin Ahmed Alfadhli||1967||The countries were incorporated into newly created People's Republic of South Yemen.|
|Qu'aiti Sultanate in Hadhramaut||Ghalib II bin Awadh bin Saleh Al Qu'aiti|
|Sultanate of Upper Yafa||Muhammad ibn Salih Harharah|
|Sultanate of Lower Yafa||Mahmud ibn Aidrus Al Afifi|
|Muflahi Sheikhdom||al Qasim ibn Abd ar Rahman|
|Audhali Sultanate||Salih ibn al Husayn ibn Jabil Al Audhali|
|Emirate of Beihan||Saleh al Hussein Al Habieli|
|Emirate of Dhala||Shafaul ibn Ali Shaif Al Amiri|
|Wahidi Sultanate of Balhaf in Hadhramaut|
|Sheikhdom of Shaib||Yahya ibn Mutahhar al-Saqladi|
|Alawi Sheikhdom||Salih ibn Sayil Al Alawi|
|Aqrabi Sheikhdom||Mahmud ibn Muhammad Al Aqrabi|
|Wahidi Sultanate of Haban in Hadhramaut||Husayn ibn Abd Allah Al Wahidi|
|Haushabi Sultanate||Faisal bin Surur Al Haushabi|
|Kathiri Sultanate in Hadhramaut||Al Husayn ibn Ali|
|Sultanate of Lahej||Ali bin Abd al Karim al Abdali|
|Sheikhdom of al-Hawra|
|Sheikhdom of al-`Irqa|
|Lower Aulaqi Sultanate||Nasir ibn Aidrus Al Awlaqi|
|Upper Aulaqi Sultanate||Awad ibn Salih Al Awlaqi|
|Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom||Amir Abd Allah ibn Muhsin al Yaslami Al Aulaqi|
|Maldives||Muhammad Fareed Didi||1968||Independence referendum.|
|Libya||Idris I||1969||Coup d'état|
|Rhodesia||Elizabeth II||1970||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy. An unrecognised government of the British colony of Southern Rhodesia had unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia in 1965, proclaiming Elizabeth II as Queen, but she did not accept the title, nor was it recognised by any other state. Following a referendum in 1969, in which 81% voted to abolish the monarchy, a republic was declared in 1970.|
|Cambodia||Norodom Sihanouk||Later restored (see below).|
|The Gambia||Elizabeth II||1971||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
|Ceylon||1972||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy, state name changed into "Sri Lanka".|
|Afghanistan||Mohammed Zahir Shah||1973||Coup d'état|
|Ethiopia||Haile Selassie I||1974|
|Greece||Constantine II||referendum; official result: 69% against monarchy|
|Malta||Elizabeth II||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
|Laos||Savang Vatthana||1975||Communist takeover|
|Sikkim||Palden Thondup Namgyal||Referendum; official result: 97% to become a state of India.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Elizabeth II||1976||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
|Iran||Mohammad Reza Pahlavi||1979||Iranian Revolution|
|Central Africa||Bokassa I||coup d'état|
|Rwenzururu||Charles Mumbere||1982||Forced to abdicate by the government of Uganda; declaration of independence of Rwenzururu was annulled.|
|Fiji||Elizabeth II||1987||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy. Elizabeth II remained recognized as Paramount Chief by the Great Council of Chiefs until the council's de-establishment on 14 March 2012.|
|Kuwait||Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah||1990||Later restored (see below)|
|Mauritius||Elizabeth II||1992||Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.|
Elimination of remaining monarchies
The bulk of monarchies did not survive the 20th century, those that remained were limited to figurehead status or continued in odd forms such as the Cambodia communist monarchy. One of the few traditional monarchies that remained was the Kingdom of Nepal. After a series of strange events, King Gyanendra's monarchy was abolished in May 2008 and replaced with a secular federal republic.
Monarchies that were abolished, restored, and continue to exist in the 21st century
|Country||Year abolished||Notes||Year restored||Years of republic|
|England||1649||Commonwealth of England established, then Parliament reversed itself and invited the return of the monarchy.||1660||11|
|Spain||1873||First Spanish Republic established||1874||1|
|1931||Second Spanish Republic established, then 1947 restored (de jure) under the regency of Francisco Franco||1975
|44 (16 - de jure)|
|Kuwait||1990||Republic of Kuwait proclaimed prior to annexation by Iraq; restored in the Gulf War.||1991||1|
|Ankole||1967||Four traditional Ugandan monarchies abolished by government under new constitution of Milton Obote||1993||26|
|Cambodia||1970||The Khmer Republic established and through transformations restored as an elective monarchy.||1993||23|
|Rwenzururu, a part of Uganda||1982||'Reinstated' out of popular support despite no evidence of such a kingdom.||2009
Many other monarchies continue to exist in the 21st century, never having been abolished.
- List of Abdications by Date
- List of countries by date of transition to republican system of government
- List of monarchy referendums
- List of monarchs who lost their thrones before the 17th century
- List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 17th century
- List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 18th century
- List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 19th century
- List of extinct states
- Debate on the monarchy in Canada
- Republicanism in the United Kingdom
- Republicanism in Norway
- 2009 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines constitutional referendum
- 2008 Tuvaluan constitutional referendum
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Note for example: Breen, Timothy H. (2017). "4: Voices of the People". George Washington's Journey: The President Forges a New Nation. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 120. ISBN 9781451675436. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
If most Americans saw the danger of addressing Washington as their American Caesar - he had absolutely no interest in becoming emperor - they nevertheless found it surprisingly appealing.
- Everdell, William R. (2000). The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago. ISBN 0226224821.
- Turnbull, Malcolm (1999). Fighting for the Republic. South Yarra: Hardie Grant Books. p. 250.
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